move along to my
After Crafts Business magazine closed I stopped posting here...
I recently received a question about advertising payoff. How much would you expect to get if you invested a certain amount into adverting? Well...this question doesn't have a short or easy answer...
Here is what you are looking for:
Return on Investment (ROI)
Well, I could write a thesis about ROI, in fact many people do write their thesis about ROI and advertising case studies. But in simple terms. VERY simple terms...by no means is this ALL of it. WARNING...VERY READERS DIGEST VERSION....
Here is what you need to do to track your ROI-
1) ask how people found out about you on your website or on the phone.
2) track your sales according to media outlet
3) track your traffic from those media outlets-easier said than done! Personally I have a guestbook contest where i ask a referred by question
4) figure out your gross sales from those media outlets
5) figure out your net sales from those media outlets
6) figure out your advertising % is. (if you grossed $100 amount and your advertising cost $10, your advertising cost was 10% of your gross)
Sounding pretty hard to track...yep it is. Especially if you throw in there the intangeable aspect of advertising. To give an analogy... with advertising, you have planted a seed. The example I like to give about advertising is the seeds in deserts or forests that require specific requirements for germination (to get the person to purchase). You might plant the seed now, but 1 year (or 2 years) from now they germinate (place their first order). After something happens to trigger them to grow(buy). But by advertising you have spread out a whole bunch of seeds just waiting to germinate (buy) given the right requirement.
How do you make sure those seeds will eventually grow?
1) Continue to advertise to the same magazines. Repetition is key. There are many marketing books written on the psychology of buying. Many books say it takes a person 3-5 times of seeing a marketing message to act on it. Which is the BIG reason we are trying to repeat ads in the same magazines for multiple insertions.
2) Market to them internally via newsletters. After they make it to your site. GRAB THEM. Get their info and put them on your monthly newsletter list. So if you don't already have a newsletter....consider it. Some of my best ROI comes from my monthly newsletter.
3) Continue to advertise within the same demographic. If a certain type of customer reads Bust and Unsigned. (which I think is the case, I'd love to see demographic overlap!) They will be seeing your message twice as often.
Then, make sure they continue to buy from you by:
1) Having a great product
2) innovations and new product introductions
3) great customer service
4) mark your products with your name, every piece of my jewelry has my logo clearly marked. So everytime a customer wears my jewelry they are reminded of Amy Peters' Studio. My little advertising seeds out there!
Why are repeat customers so important? In general (again very basic and simple terms here...) it is said to be 5-10 times more expensive to gain a new customer as it is to sell AGAIN to an exising customer. So repeat customers are what you are looking for. Getting new customers is hard and expensive. Silly (and scary) example...but it makes sense....this is why drug dealers make the first high free...after they hook you, you WILL continue to buy.
A good advertising plan is well thought out and requires patience. MOST people don't buy the first time they see your ad. But, with repetition and the right requirements....they will. So look at advertising as a part of your overall marketing. If you are having to put your advertising on a credit card...think again. Set a % of overall sales that you are willing to put towards advertising. So say you gross $10,000 a year with your business and you are wanting to GROW your business. Then your advertising would be a larger %. If you are happy with your current volume...you could use a smaller %. And how to figure out a % would be a whole other thesis!
As far as case studies go....
1) I have had places where I have advertised and my ROI was actually a negative figure. I paid more for the advertising venue than I made. That tells me that the media outlet wasn't a good fit for me.
2) I have had places I have advertised for $100 and I made $1000 in profit from it.
3) I've had places where I invested $50 and made $8000 in profit from it.
So it can be ALL over the place. You can't just say if I invest X amount I will get X amount in return. BUT...you should set a % of gross sales that you want to spend on advertising and what you EXPECT to gain from it.
But DON'T forget the intangeable aspect of advertising.......planting seeds. The more seeds, the more potential for future sales.
So I wanted to hold a huge party to celebrate my 10 year anniversary in business....I finally decided that it would be hard to gather up all of my customers from around the US....so I settled for a huge contest instead!
Treasure Yourself Contest
Each order placed online is shipped with a treasure chest filled with goodies...
$5000 in gift certificates
$2500 in limited edition "Treasure Yourself" charms.
And depending on how much gum my kids chew....lots and lots of gold coin gum.
**No purchase necessary see website for information.
How can something as simple as a resale card become a marketing survey?
In California we are required to get other CA companies to fill out resale cards from companies that want to purchase from us wholesale. So they don't pay sales tax. Since I am required to do this I figured I might as well make it a bit more useful than just a resale number. I have other marketing questions on the resale card that by asking all of my customers to fill it out they give me VERY valuable info
Q's I ask...
Sales Volume of the store
Type of Store (gallery, clothing, kids, new-age etc etc)
Store Location- (ie downtown, destination, mall etc
Trade shows they attend (i have check boxes with shows listed)
Trade Magazines they read (again check boxes)
Store busy season (Holiday, Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall)
How would they like to hear about new designs (email, fax, phone, Mail)
I then take all of this very valuable information and put it into my contact management software, so I can learn from my current wholesale accounts. I can run reports and look for common themes among my best customers.
Is there a sales trend with my jewelry? Does it sell better to galleries or clothing stores? Where do my best customers attend trade shows? What magazines do they read? All of this helps me to determine how I should spend my marketing dollars the best. If all of my shops say they attend the NY gift show and sometimes the CA gift show...why spend the extra money attending both shows!
In addition it really helps me to better serve my customers. If they say that their busy season is in the summer, I can make sure to send their orders quickly during their hectic time. And if they prefer to get notified by Email with new designs I send it that way. It has made my marketing dollars more targeted and has made me better at customer service!
After a very successful open studio this weekend, I just have to share. If you local art center or art group holds an open studio weekend...GO FOR IT...sign up to participate and open your studio to the public.
Our local Art center organizes a county wide open studio tour. It has gotten so successful it is now broken up into South County and North County tours. With hundreds of artists participating.
This weekend we had over 150 people come to visit my studio. We made really wonderful sales to the visitors. Since I now have a gift shop in my studio I did have to do some reworking to move all of the other products out of my store. Only my designs could be showcased during the open studio. It was so much fun meeting people and I think they really enjoyed meeting me as well. I think it will help me gain some new regular customers for our gift store. A lot of them already knew my work from our local gallery and were so excited to see my studio to see how it worked.
So look around and find out if your local art center offers an open studio tour.
For more interactive discussion about business...
We have just started an online discussion board, so I can answer any questions you might have about starting and running a craft business. In addition to business discussions we have many other features including forum only contests, DIY fun projects, collectors news and much more.... So grab a cup of coffee, put on some slippers and stop by for some fun chatting....
We have partnered with Chic Blvd and sponsored a contest for their newsletter subscribers.
What is your ultimate Career Dream.... The winner gets to pick out a favorite treat from Amy Peters' Studio!
If you aren't already familiar with Chic Blvd It is the girlfriend's guide for the road of life. Dating, Wedding, Baby, Living...what road are you on? Sign up for their newsletter, so you won't miss out on another amazing contest.
And stay tuned to find out who the winner is going to be....so many great entries, this is going to be tough!
I have been at back to back trade shows for the summer, so I'm sorry I haven't been able to keep up on the blog.... I just had to come on board and post this about a way we can all help out during this time of need for the southern states.
With the devistation from Hurricane Katrina, craft artists are banding together
with support by donating their products in an effort to help the Red Cross relief effort.
To find out more visit Crafts Revolution
To buy items visit Etsy Shop
I have been getting a lot of questions lately from new artists that are considering doing a trade show.
Here are the things to consider before doing a show.
The expense of a trade show
For gift shows the basic booth package alone is around $2000.
Many shows have booth fees that go up towards $5000.
Hotel and Food $2000
Transportation (or flight) $200-$1000 depending on where the show is.
A really cheap trade show booth $500-$1000
Shipping for your booth $200-$1000.
OK so you can skip the Hotel if you are lucky enough to have a friend in the town you are exhibiting in or you happen to live there (and in this case you cut the transportation too). That reduces your costs a little. You can stay at a really cheap hotel (yikes...I've done this in NYC... I wouldn't recommend it to women staying alone!!!) and eat really cheap food (don't plan on ANY cheap food in the convention centers!) and cut your costs a little bit. But it is still a very expensive undertaking.
So... here is what you need to look at. How much is my total show going to cost? Add it all up. Then think about how much you will need to sell to make back just your cost at the show. Is that possible?
Can you actually make a lot of your (insert your craft here) in a short period of time? Can you make enough of your product to cover your expenses and your cost of goods? So you can make that much, but can you sell that much? Have you ever sold wholesale to stores? If not, why go directly to a large wholesale show first?
So what happens if you have an amazing show. Can you handle A LOT of business right away. The worst thing you can do is to grow too much too quickly. If you aren't realistic with your production schedule, then you will upset customers. Don't ever promise anything that you can't handle.
So be honest with yourself. Can you handle a flop of a show OR a huge hit of a show? Most of the time trade shows are somewhere in between, but just be prepared for the worst and hope (and plan) for the best.
Here are a few other options instead of a trade show
I would recommend if you don't have a huge marketing budget that you try at least a few of these first before trade shows to see if you product will sell to stores.
Sell to your local stores
My first 2 stores were in my local area..one in the local area I lived in and one in my hometown. The first one I sold to I actually worked at Hands Gallery in San Luis Obispo The second store that I sold to was Spirals Gallery was in my home town of Palo Alto. My next door neighbor that I grew up with (and babysat for) worked at Sprials and helped me to set up a meeting with the owner. Now 10 years later I still sell to both stores!
Ask your friends for recommendations
If you know anyone in the gift or craft industry ask them for store recommendations. This is a great way to get some feedback on stores. I called a friend of a friend that was VERY helpful when I was first starting out. He gave me his top 10 list and I sent catalogs to all of them and 8 of them bought from me right away. 1 of them I kept marketing to for 3 years and they finally placed an order with me.
You can rent mailing lists for stores and send out a postcard mailer for under $1000 So this is often a good option to get your product in front of a lot of retail stores. The Top 100 galleries (Buyers Market of American Craft List) is a great place to start too!
Sending Press Kits to Trade Magazines
Write a press release and send it out to trade magazine in your industry in hopes of getting an article written about you. If your press release gets picked up this can be a great way to get your name in front of retail buyers. The only problem with press releases is that you don't have a guaranteed that they will use your story in the magazine.
Advertising in Trade Magazines
This can be a great way to get in front of a lot of retail buyers. Depending on what your craft is you will want to check out ad rates and see if it fits within your budget. Most trade show have quite reasonable ad rates.
Find a Rep
This can be a great first step instead of doing trade shows right away. Again ask around to see if you know anyone who has a good rep and they are willing to give you their names. Search the internet for reps and ask stores in your area if there are reps that they would recommend. GreatRep.com has a listing option for looking for reps.
This can be a great place to start. If you don't have a website it gives you a place to show off your work to a large number of retail stores. Their advertisements make a great compliment to the website.
This can be a good option to get in front of retailers. I have had some success here.
Taking the leap into a career in art....
So you hate your 9-5 job and want to persue your passion? You think that if you just made jewelry ( or insert your craft/art here) you life would be perfect. First realize that life is not PERFECT no matter what job you have. Start from there. Realize that life is about movement, change, ups and downs. OK....got that.
Now...starting from a realistic point. You love making your craft. You enjoy being in charge of your own destiny. Setting your own hours. If all of that sound great and you really have to do it...be realistic. Don't expect overnight success. It does happen sometimes, but more often than not it is a 5 year overnight success story! With a lot of hard work and setting your own hours doesn't mean that they are short hours. It all takes balance, hard work and a good business plan.
A good business plan requires that you ask yourself a lot of questions and make some hard decisions.
How do you want to sell your craft?
To individuals via craft shows or fashion events?
How will you find the best events to target? Are there some in your area or are you going to have to travel to attend them? How will you finance these shows? And what if they are a flop?
To individuals via your website?
How will you get the traffic to your website. It is not as easy as if you build it they will come. You need a plan of how to get people to stop by. Adwords? Offline advertising? Links with other crafty related artist's sites? Paid advertising online at Ezines or other sites?
Do you want to sell to stores?
Are you going to take your work into each store yourself or are you going to sell to stores through reps? How are you going to find the reps?
To stores through trade shows?
How are you going to finance your trade shows? Which shows are the right fit for you? How will you get the trade show attendees to stop into your booth? Can you handle the volume if you product is a huge success? Can you handle it if you show is a complete flop?
All of the answers to these questions are some of the basics to a business plan. You need to first create your product and then figure out how to sell it. Then you need to figure out how much it is going to cost to make your product and market it....
Do you have a husband or partner that can cover the bills until your company is making money? Or do you need to go for a loan? Or can you do your craft part time until you can afford to really take the leap into a full time career.
All of the questions are are ones that only you can answer, but when you do you will have more information so you can take the next step...or should I say LEAP!
Some of the best advice I can give to new artists is to create a style that is yours and yours alone. Set yourself apart from the crowd in some way. You don't want your work to be defined by being just like so and so's. You want your customers to know that the designs are yours. Start by creating a cohesive collection or several groupings of designs.
If you designs are created completely out of purchased mass produced beads it is quite difficult to create a look that has a signature style. If everyone can purchase the same beads it can often become muddy whether or not the design is completely yours. Think about things that can set you apart. A custom made clasp or even just a signature special bead at the clasp can add a unique touch.
A great idea to continue to "brand" your designs is to create tags for you designs. I often will compliment someone on the jewelry designs that they are wearing and ask if they know the artist's name. I will often get...."hmmm I met her at an art show, I can't remember her name" or "Oh I got it as a gift" Imagine this senario instead. Someone is complimented while wearing my designs...They flip over the charm and they say "Oh it's made by Amy Peters' Studio". So now I have thousands and thousands of walking advertisements out there for my jewelry company. And with a google search they can find my website. For tags visit Harper Mfg.
When I was first creating my collection years ago. I played around with a lot of different styles, but then I struck on my true style. I loved whimsical inspirational designs. And the rest is history. I have continued to expand on the style and now my line has a cohesive look. I have become know for my style.
Unfortunately....about once or twice a month I will get a call or an email from someone who has been so "inspired" by my story that they began to make jewelry. Often they will send me pictures or send me to their website or an item that they have created. Usually it looks an awful lot like my jewelry. Instead of being flattered by this admiration, I am frustrated. On one hand, because I have spent time and effort to be original in my designs, so I don't like to see "variations" of my designs. And on the other hand I'm frustrated for the artists themselves, the fact that they don't have their own ideas and need to copy someone for their own creativity. If it is a blatant copy....I go to my lawyer and have to start copyright infringement mediation. And of course my lawyer says that I have "made it". The first sign that you are successful is that people will copy your signature style. I read recently on the top of the Glitter forum web page. Imitation is not flattery. I just had to laugh...that says it all. Over the years this has happened on more occasions than I would have hoped for...... One such occurance is noted in my press release....
So spend some time creating your designs from your own unique perspective. Make sure that it speaks from your style and not someone elses. If you are insipred by someone really ask yourself if you were just inspired or you are just copying someone's style. Why follow in someone's footsteps when you can make your own!
I just had to post this here. I just received the May newsletter and I was reminded once again how great this newsletter really is. I had been looking for Editorial Calendars and having trouble. Then in my email box...there it was right in the newsletter. I have been subscribing to Bill's monthly newsletter for at least 3 or 4 years. I love it. It is filled with incredible marketing an PR ideas and solutions to problems. The subscription has been worth every dime of the $97 that I have spent.
check it out here....
Once you get there spend some time poking around at all of his resources and links. Then subscribe to
the Free Publicity newsletter. I promise you won't be disappointed!
One of the most common questions that I get from new artists is "What is a line sheet?" There is no mystery to this...no secret handshake to tell you how it is created. It is simply just a document that shows your line. It can be done in any layout that you choose. Imagine all of the catalogs that come to your mailbox, each one has it's own unique style, but they are all selling merchandise.
When I was first starting out and I could not afford to make a 4 color printed catalog I hand drew my images. My jewelry lends itself to that style since they are basically flat with an image and wording on them. Not a lot of texture so the words and the images are the most important design elements.
Here are the basics that a line sheet has to have:
1) All of your contact information-This is simple, your address, phone number, fax number, web page and email address.
2) Images of your designs-Make sure that if you are doing color photographs of your designs that they are professional quality.
3) Prices for each of your designs-Make sure you are noting wholesale prices on a wholesale line sheet.
4) Your terms of sale-This includes: how you accept payment, how long you will take to produce and ship the orders, shipping charges, return policy, if you will offer Net 30 on repeat orders.
5) Some added information that is helpful, but not necessary are; Artist Bio, Description of how your craft is made, history of your company and any press you have received.
That's all, it doesn't have to be a confusing thing. Really it is quite straigtforward.
Today there was a post on a forum where I am a member. It was about whether or not it was possible to be both a businesswoman and a mother. That is a question I spend a lot of time trying to answer….ha ha!
Of course it is possible! But it takes time and effort to get the balance right. I’m not saying that I always have the balance right, but most days I try very hard. I have been running my business now for 10 years. I have a 7 year old and a 3 year old.
I have my share of frustrating days when I rush around trying to get my kids to gymnastics and dance on time because I have had a customer issue that needed my attention at 2:45. There are days when I feel guilt that my kids have been with babysitters too much during my busy trade show season. Or the days when the babysitter shows up 30 minutes late without a decent excuse while I have someone waiting for me to interview them for a job I desperately need to fill, so my day can run a little smoother!!!
But I have my business set up so that my children come first. I try to work only 25-30 hours a week…that is… during the day time hours. I get off work at 3:00 on most days so that I can do after school things with my kids. I teach art in my daughter’s classroom. But with a flexible schedule there comes compromise. I often have to finish up by going back to work after the children are in bed. I spend the evenings working on marketing projects or working on bookkeeping.
My business has been successful…but it probably hasn’t grown as much or as fast as it could have if I was single or didn’t have children. But that is the compromise that I chose to make when I had children. I can’t put a price on reading my children bedtime stories or watching them play at the beach on a sunny spring day at 3 in the afternoon.
This week...my website which has been online for 8 years... finally went retail. So why did I fight it for so long? I started my business based on wholesale accounts. And I have very established and dedicated wholesale accounts.
So why did I finally decide to go online with a retail site? Plain and simple...customer demand! I was getting on average 20-30 requests a week to sell online. They were from customers that had discovered my work through catalogs, magazines, stores or in a lot of cases from my jewelry itself. I get a lot of emails from people that have seen my jewelry being worn by someone and they have "googled me". The problem comes in when customers can't find my jewelry in their local areas. Or they can't find the specific design that they want at any of the stores they have called. I was getting a lot of emails from frustrated customers who had already tried 4 or 5 stores before they finally emailed me out of desperation searching for that perfect design.
So it seems like it would be an easy decision to just sell online...
But....Here is the potential problem designers can run into with stores, more and more lately....if your prices online are not competitive (i.e. same price or close to same price) with store prices...a lot of store owners will refuse to carry your designs. It has become a real hot button point in the last year. At the Buyers Market of American craft in February there was a table topic discussion about it, it was an article in Crafts Business Magazine...and there are A LOT of store owners that just flatly refuse to purchase from people that sell online. I have had MANY discussion with gallery owners. Many of which are considered the top galleries in the US. Stores are really concerned about becoming a show place for artists who will then sell their work online cheaper.
I have tried to keep everyone happy by honest communications and fair mark up of my jewelry designs on my website. I don't undercut my stores prices. And they appreciate it. But only time will tell if I end up losing some wholesale accounts by starting to retail on my website.
Visit my website and see the newly launched retail site....
Amy Peters' Studio
Getting your work into the hands of celebrities
a) You can use a service like contact any celebrity to find celebity addresses for agents and managers. You can to send your work directly to the agent for the celebrity you are interested in contacting. These are not home addresses for the celebrities. That would just be kinda creepy in a stalker kinda way. If the celebrity is nice they might even send a Thank you note. I have been amazed by some of the thank you notes that I have received.
b) You can send your work to costume designers for televisions shows. Then, hope that they use the desgins on the show.
c) You can get lucky and just see someone wearing your work in a magazine or on tv.
d) If you have any friends in the entertainment industry, ask them if they have any connections with celebrities that could wear your work.
e)Put your designs into gift bags. This can get really expensive! There is usually a fee for placement into the really big gift bags. You just have to consider if the payoff will be worth the expense.
f) Donate your work to high profile charities that have celebrity ties. I actually get requests for donations on a regular basis for this now. But, I pick and choose only charities that I would normally support with cash donation. The causes that I support are: Cancer support centers, Ovarian Cancer, Parkinson's disease, Art in Schools, Science in Schools. All of these causes are near and dear to my heart, so in lieu of volunteering time (which I don't have extra of...) I donate my jewelry. And for many of the donations I also get some PR...this makes it possilbe for me to donate more, since I can write it off in both the donation and PR columns of my Profit and Loss statements.
g) You can send it to stylists that dress the celebrities.
h) You can host a promo party during awards season and invite celebrities and the press hoping that they will come and fall in love with your designs.
I have done or had almost all of these happen with my designs. However you get your work into the hands of the celebrities isn't as important as what you do after it is in their hands. No one is going to come knocking down your door after they see your work on TV or in a magazine on a celebrity....You have to promote it and make sure that everyone knows it was yours! Put the thank you notes on your site, put up pictures of them wearing it on your website and at trade shows and send out press releases to anyone that will listen...and hopefully publish an article about your successes. I just recently had my jewlery on 4 episodes of "the OC" and now I have had multiple articles written about it....But it doesn't just come easy it takes work!
A note on celebrity gift bags.
You have to decide if it will bring you as much PR as it is going to cost you to do the event. Say if it costs you $3000, is it going to translate into the same amount of PR as if you sent out $3000 worth of samples to magazines. Probably not. So I recommend not all eggs in one basket. If this is the avenue you want to persue...then go for it. It can be good and heck also lots of fun especially if you get invited to attend the events. But make it part of your PR campaign not the entire PR campaign or you will be disappointed. Every once in a while a designer will hit it big from one event or one great placement...But there are hundreds of events out there with celebrities....I get about 1-2 a week in my email box.
Working with larger accounts..OVC, Sundance, Femail Creations and Department Stores.
If the numbers like $5000 in back stock sound really scarry...then honestly you aren't ready to go after a larger account..yet! Start smaller, look for smaller accounts until you can handle the volume that is necessary to work with larger accounts. Try looking for local boutiques and galleries. Get some feedback and grow from there. Remember the larger the company you are working with the more they will expect from you. Most of the catalog companies that I deal with ask for Net 60 terms. Cash flow issues have been the death of many a small companies. The order numbers sound really nice $25,000 in orders...yeah...but just remember you need to buy the supplies to make all of that stuff and ship it and then wait 60 days after they get the merchandise before you get paid...and that's if they pay on time. So if you can't afford the output for supplies...you need to start smaller at first! One of the worst thing a new designer can do is go after a big account before they are ready.
Ok...so I haven't scaird you with the cash flow. You can handle that. What are some other obsticles to working on larger scale.
Most catalog companies do not pay for samples. And many do not return them. Most will only request samples if they are serious about actually looking into using your designs. But often things will happen and they decide to go another direction and don't choose your product. So if you don't get your samples back will you be devastated?
Can you actually produce 100 of something in the turnaround time they need. What if it turned out to be 1000 items. Most catalogs need less than 5 week turnaround time, especially at the holidays. Some will even get into a pinch and need as little as 2 weeks.
If you are paperwork challenged. Catalog companies will be scary for you. For each catalog there is a mini novella to read filled with information about packaging, shipments, how to get paid, when you will get paid etc etc. Each item you submit will need a product specification sheet. Detailing out materials, country of origin, designer information etc etc. If you don't follow the directions as set forth you can end up being backcharged for any errors on your part. Say your profit is $10 on an item. Often backcharges are $5 per item or $50 per hour that it costs them to fix errors. There goes your profit.
I personally have never been backcharged. I take any contract that I sign very seriously.
So none of my warning have scaird you away from going for it.... then good...you are probably ready for it. Just remember don't plan ahead too much and over buy materials for orders you don't even have yet. (learned that one the hard way..anyone want 200 flower pot stick pins???!?!?!) Take a deep breath and submit some samples.
I have created this blog as a companion to my webpage. I often will get questions from new designer that have requested information about how I have created such a successful jewelry business. Being a mother of two, a wife and a businesswoman gives me very little time to answer individual emails from people requesting help. When I was just starting my business I was lucky enough to get help and suggestions from some successful jewelry designers, so I try to pay it forward by helping mentor other new artists. Through this blog I hope to be able to answer the questions that I get on a regular basis.
I write a business advice column for Crafts Business Magazine The column Ask Amy appears in every issue of the magazine. If you are truly interested in creating a successful business this is the magazine for you.
I will try to come up with information about things that I have done in my business that have been successful, in addition to things that were not so successful. I do welcome questions...and will try and answer as many as I can here.